The painful and debilitating effects of osteoarthritis at the knee can be remedied by replacing the damaged articulating surfaces of the kne...
The painful and debilitating effects of osteoarthritis at the knee can be remedied by replacing the damaged articulating surfaces of the knee with a total knee replacement. Modern knee replacements consist of a metal alloy component on the femoral side (top of the knee) and a special plastic called ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene on the tibial side (bottom of the knee). Through recent improvements in materials, these implants have seen increased longevity, often lasting 15 years or more in the body before requiring a second surgery. As patients opt for knee replacements earlier in life, remain more active after surgery and live longer, the demands on the design and longevity of knee replacements increases.nnOne of the leading causes of revision surgery is periprosthetic bone loss, which means that bone near the implant has thinned. As the knee articulates during walking, the top metal component slides, rolls and rotates on the polyethylene. This relative motion causes the polyethylene to wear. Microscopic debris leaves the surface and enters the surrounding tissue, where it can set off a cascade of cellular reactions that lead to bone resorption. Currently, knee replacement designs and materials are evaluated before being implanted by machines that run accelerated tests by simulating the motion of walking at the knee.nnHowever, walking is not the only activity of daily living. Sitting in a chair, rising from a chair, stepping up a stair and stepping down a stair are the most common activities for total knee replacement patients after walking. In a motion analysis lab, we measured the movements and dynamics of these activities using retroreflective markers, infrared cameras and force plates. Using a computational method known as inverse dynamics and a parametric numerical model, we were able to show that these activities generally have larger motions and higher forces. In particular, the secondary motions of the knee, such as internal-external rotation and medial-lateral (side-to-side) translation, are often larger in non-walking activities.nnUltra-high molecular weight polyethylene, the plastic most commonly used in knee replacements, is made of long chains of molecules. The material is highly wear resistant because the chains are entangled. As thousands of cycles of walking accumulate, the molecular chains align in the primary direction of motion. Once aligned, the material is more susceptible to wear in secondary directions. The larger secondary motions of other activities could lead higher wear. Because pre-implantation tests only include walking, the tests may be insufficient to accurately predict the wear of the implant in the body.nnCurrently, testing is underway to evaluate if the motions of non-walking activities do increase the wear of knee replacements. In addition, knee replacements that had been implanted and were retrieved from patients after revision surgery or death are being evaluated for wear. The results of these retrieved specimen will help determine whether the inclusion of non-walking activities in testing routines is necessary to evaluate the wear of total knee replacements.nnMy dance to explain my in-progress PhD thesis was originally choreographed for live performance and adapted for the camera. Less
The sun creates a lot of energy by hydrogen fusion. Scientists are investigating fusion, building our own ‘sun on earth’, as a sustainab...
The sun creates a lot of energy by hydrogen fusion. Scientists are investigating fusion, building our own ‘sun on earth’, as a sustainable energy source on earth. A lot of energy is released when hydrogen isotopes fuse together into helium and neutrons. One of the key problems is that these high energy neutrons can damage the crystal structure of the surrounding tungsten wall. This can create vacancies in the metal lattice, which trap hydrogen atoms. Trapped hydrogen cannot fuse to release energy.nnMaterial temperature turns out to be an important factor in managing hydrogen capture. We investigated how hydrogen can escape if the tungsten material is hot. On the one hand, hot tungsten atoms are more mobile and can move back into vacancies in the crystal, so that the metal effectively heals itself. Additionally, the hydrogen atoms themselves have a higher mobility at a high temperature. They can now escape from their captivity and take part in the fusion process within the heart of the machine; one step closer to creating a sun on earth.nnMy PhD dance is performed around and on the experiment I’m using for my research, Magnum-PSI (FOM Institute DIFFER, the Netherlands). Magnum-PSI is capable of reproducing the conditions that we expect in the wall of a fusion reactor. We can therefore test materials on their capabilities of withstanding such a harsh environment.nnI would like to thank all people that helped me create this dance. We had an incredible amount of fun using the experimental hall in the weekend for a completely different purpose than the usual experiments. Special thanks to FOM Institute DIFFER (www.differ.nl).nnExplanation of my PhD dance in detail:nThe two dancers at the platform on top of the machine illustrate the fusion of two hydrogen atoms (yellow dresses) into helium within the sun. An abundance of energy is released in this way. Looking down from the machine, we see a single hydrogen atom ‘on earth’. Her movements are the same as in the duet, however much smaller. She dances alone to show that when too much hydrogen is captured in the surrounding wall of a fusion reactor, there is not enough hydrogen to keep the fusion process going.nIn the following scene, we see the regular structure of a tungsten material, depicted by the disks on the ground and the three dancers (black dresses). Smoke rings illustrate the high energy neutrons that, released in the fusion reaction, continuously bombard the material. An interaction between neutrons and the tungsten materials will not happen often, but when it does it will cause a chain reaction of displacements in the material; the frisbees move in all directions. nAt low surface temperature (blue light), the hydrogen atoms are more easily trapped and hence can no longer take part in a fusion reaction. The yellow dancers are captured in the material, they join in on the movements of the black dancers.n At high surface temperatures (red light) the hydrogen atoms have a higher mobility, which prevents them from getting trapped within the material. Their movements are wider and more energetic. Additionally, the material itself regenerates. The disks return to a regular structure, limiting the number of vacancies in which hydrogen can be captured. Now liberated, the yellow hydrogen atoms escape and dance away from the material. n The dance continues with a duet of hydrogen atoms entangled in a fusion reaction. We end back in the original scene, but this time with two fusion duets; one in the sun (on top of the machine), the other within a fusion reactor (on the floor). Less
My PhD research was on studying pairs of heavy-element reactions to see if there was a better way to make these isotopes. By shooting an io...
My PhD research was on studying pairs of heavy-element reactions to see if there was a better way to make these isotopes. By shooting an ion beam of a particular energy from an accelerator at a target and measuring the decays of the particular isotope we made in a detector further away, we can determine the reaction probability (cross section) of that reaction. The cross section is a ratio of the production rate of the thing you want to make by the beam dose per unit area by the number of target nuclei per unit area. If you make the same isotope two different ways and one way has a significantly higher cross section, it indicates a favored reaction. In my dissertation research I looked at eight different reactions, or four pairs, making the elements Db, Bh, Mt, and Rg. If you aren’t familiar with those elements, look at the bottom of the transition metals on the periodic table. nnThe cyclotron accelerates beam ions in an outwardly spiraling horizontal path. If you look closely you can see that the beam ball color and the target hoop color are combined in the hoop color of the product atom, most of the time. (I didn’t have any white LED beam balls.) I used t-shirts of different colors with their element symbols to show that the combination of the beam ball and target hoop made something completely different. The product atom recoils out of the target and travels along with unreacted beam and gets separated along the way to the detector. The decaying atom of Mt first undergoes alpha decay by getting rid of the yellow ball. The so-called “daughter” product Bh also decays by alpha emission to Db, but the Db atom grabs a red ball representing an electron and turns into Rf. This isotope of Rf spontaneously fissions – or splits in two – and that ends the decay chain. I used this same kind of experimental method to discover the new isotope 260Bh, which is so awesome I had to use fire to represent it.nnYou see eight “data points” towards the end of the video but I only list five reactions plus the new isotope because those are the ones I did myself. The other three data points were added to my results from a thorough meta-analysis of the literature. The short answer to the question of “is there a favored reaction method?” is NO. The statistical uncertainty in the cross sections of each reaction pair overlap, represented at the end by the rotating hoops.nnThanks for watching! Less
Video for the DANCE YOUR PhD 2014 contest.nnWritten, directed and edited by Saioa Alvarez (Food scientist and PhD candidate in food science ...
Video for the DANCE YOUR PhD 2014 contest.nnWritten, directed and edited by Saioa Alvarez (Food scientist and PhD candidate in food science and technology) . The experimental work presented in this thesis was performed at AZTI (Spain) and the thesis will be presented at the University of the Basque Country (Spain).nnSee the video for the rest of the credits.nnMORE INFORMATION:nnDue to the increasing prevalence of diseases related to high-calorie intake, such as overweight and obesity, there is a growing demand by food consumers of low-caloric products. The higher caloric value of fat compared to carbohydrates or proteins has made the food industry to especially focus on the development of reduced-fat products.nnHowever, fat plays and important role in food properties as texture and flavour. In highly concentrated emulsions, for instance mayonnaise, a reduction in oil volume provokes a large decrease in the emulsion´s viscosity and the appearance of destabilisation phenomena. Creaming is one of the main instability phenomena. It consists in the oil droplets upward migration due to the differences in density between oil and water. When the number of oil droplets is small and enough interactions between them are not produced, or when the viscosity of the droplets surrounding phase (normally mostly water in oil-in-water emulsions) is very low, droplets migrate upward and a separated creamy phase appears.nnIn this video we tried to explain how we solved this problem during this thesis through the story of a mayonnaise addict that does not know how to obtain reduced-fat mayonnaises with appropiate texture. Food scientists explain him how we did it and the fundaments behind the followed strategies. On one hand we added a low-caloric carbohydrate, which interacts with water increasing the aqueous phase viscosity. We also studied the impact of the application of an emerging food processing technology: high pressure homogenisation. The very high forces applied by this technology produce the oil droplets sizes reduction provoking an increase in their surface area and consequently also in the interactions among droplets (more packed droplets for the same oil volume fraction). Both effects improve the emulsions viscoelastic properties and prevent the oil droplets creaming. Hence, it is possible to obtain reduced-fat mayonnaises with similar texture properties as the full-fat ones by combining both strategies.nnWe also wanted to explain in this video the role of egg yolk as emulsifier. Egg yolk´s emulsifying molecules locate at the interface between oil and water (aqueous phase) reducing the tension among them. This makes possible the emulsification process by reducing the immiscibility between phases. Milk proteins can also be used as emulsifiers but as shown in this video they are not efficient for fat reduction by themselves.nnIt´s been a great (and very funny) experience mixing dance and science. We also learnt a lot about video production and editing for future "scientific/artistic" videos.nnTHANKS FOR WATCHING! Less
Dance Your PhD 2014nUma NagendranDepartment of Plant BiologynUniversity of GeorgiannMany of the patterns we see in forests around the world ...
Dance Your PhD 2014nUma NagendranDepartment of Plant BiologynUniversity of GeorgiannMany of the patterns we see in forests around the world are caused by the relationships that plants have with organisms in the soil. Some very diverse forests can only support as many different tree species as they do because soil-borne diseases prevent any one species from taking over. But what happens when a tornado comes along? Do the plants and soil organisms maintain this diversity-promoting relationship? nnMy PhD research focuses on how several different species of tree seedlings in the southern Appalachian mountains interact with soil organisms—and how tornadoes might mix things up. I study many different species. As an example, we can look at white pine (Pinus strobus), and the many pathogens that attack the roots of its seedlings.nnThe dance begins in an undisturbed forest. Because trees live for so long in one place, a mature pine tree accumulates a unique group of fungi around its roots—including pathogens that cause diseases in tree seedlings (in this case, Pythium and Rhizoctonia). White pine seedlings that are very close to a mature tree are more likely to be attacked by these pathogens—causing stunted growth, or even death. The farther away a seedling is from a mature tree, the less likely it is to get infected. These distant seedlings are more likely to survive to maturity. A pattern emerges where the mature pine trees are spaced far apart—leaving room for seedlings of other species to grow, and creating a diverse forest. nnIn the middle of the dance, we witness the tornado—and how it changes the forest environment. The mature pine tree dies, and the forest floor is no longer shaded. The soil becomes hotter and drier. Without the living mature tree as a host, specialist pathogens are less active, and many die. Because of this, I am predicting that plant-soil relationships in recently tornado-damaged areas may be much weaker. In the last part of the dance, seedlings close to the (killed) mature tree are no longer at greater risk for disease; they grow and survive the same as their more distant siblings. The changing plant-soil relationships after disturbances might be one piece in the puzzle of how diverse ecosystems change over time. Less
Quick Key:nNavy: electrons (e-)nBlue/Orange: ferrocenium / ferrocene (Fcn+/ Fcn)nRed: lithium ions (Li+)nYellow: solvent (Sol)nnnSide reacti...
Quick Key:nNavy: electrons (e-)nBlue/Orange: ferrocenium / ferrocene (Fcn+/ Fcn)nRed: lithium ions (Li+)nYellow: solvent (Sol)nnnSide reactions in lithium-ion batteries are a major problem for battery safety and lifetime. My research tries to determine what these side reactions are and how to control them. To do this, I developed a new method to characterize side reactions by using the molecule ferrocene. When ferrocene is in its reduced (electrically neutral) form, it is orange. When it is in the oxidized (positively charged) form, known as ferrocenium, it is blue-green.nnThe main reaction in this system is the reduction of lithium ions (red dancers). When lithium ions are reduced by electrons (navy blue dancers), the resulting lithium intercalates into the electrode. However, solvent molecules (yellow dancers) are reduced at the same potential. The insoluble solvent reduction products precipitate as a film on the electrode surface. This film passivates the electrode, blocking further reaction. nnSolvent reduction is much more complex than the single-electron reaction shown here, and the properties of such thin films are hard to measure. To better understand the films, we add ferrocenium (blue dancer). Because ferrocenium reduction occurs at a different potential than lithium or solvent reduction, its rate is much easier to measure. As the film grows thicker and less porous, through-film ferrocenium reduction becomes more difficult. This method can thereby determine film parameters such as the thickness and porosity.nnThis dance was performed with the help of Lindy on Sproul, our campus swing dance club. The song, "What'cha Know Joe?", reflects both the poorly-understood nature of side reactions and the mental state frequently experienced during a Ph. D. Less
*** WINNER OF THE 2012 DANCE YOUR PhD COMPETITION ***nnSydney University researcher, Peter Liddicoat, has won the 2012 Dance Your PhD compet...
*** WINNER OF THE 2012 DANCE YOUR PhD COMPETITION ***nnSydney University researcher, Peter Liddicoat, has won the 2012 Dance Your PhD competition (run by Science magazine). Watch his winning video where he translates his PhD research in materials science into dance.nnAnnouncement of contest winners: nhttp://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/10/dance-your-phd-and-the-winner-is.html?ref=hpnnMore information about the competition: http://gonzolabs.org/dance/nn------------------------------------------------------------------nnTitle: "A super-alloy is born: The romantic revolution of Lightness & Strength"nn"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness" -- surely Charles Dickens was describing life as a PhD student? Through interpretive dance, we've tried to communicate the circus that is a PhD experience.nnOur story introduces the Engineer's elusive dream to arrange the coupling of Lightness and Strength - a classic engineering romance over the ages. Strength is heavy and difficult to work with, Lightness is delicate and frail.nnThe Engineer summons the Scientist and explains the problem. This is a daunting task. Inspired by the Engineer, the Scientist uses a sophisticated atom probe microscope to observe, at the atomic level, what makes Lightness so frail. He finds that when force is applied to the perfect crystal structure of Lightness the bonds break and the atoms slip along a straight line. But how to make it stronger? Could the lines of atoms be arranged so that they didn't slip?nnTaking an unconventional route, The Scientist tries a process of applying torsion to redesign the atomic architecture. He applies this revolving force to the crystal, dividing it into multiple smaller parts, and creates interfaces that might block slip. Alloying atoms are arranged on the interfaces to provide important adhesion between the small crystals. Nervously, the Scientist tests this new design and discovers the new material resists much greater force without breaking. This new material is a light-weight aluminium alloy with the strength of heavy steel, a new world record!nnThe Engineer evaluates the new Super-Alloy. It performs fantastically! The Engineer thanks the Scientist and carries the Super-Alloy off into the sunset.nnFor further info, please see:nnWhat is an atom probe microscope? What is atom probe tomography?nhttp://youtu.be/kjBkh091LG8nn"Nanostructural hierarchy increases the strength of aluminium alloys"nLiddicoat, P.V., Liao, X.Z., Zhao, Y., Zhu, Y.T., Murashkin, M. Y., Lavernia, E. J., Valiev, R. Z., Ringer, S.P.nNature Communications, 2010, Volume 1, Issue 6, p. 63-69nn"Nanostructures give alloy super strength"nAMMRF Media Release, 2010nhttp://ammrf.org.au/012_070910.php Less
"In The Ring: A Fusion Odyssey"nA dance based on Hans Rinderknecht's PhD, entitled:nn"Studies of non-hydrodynamic processes in Inertial Conf...
"In The Ring: A Fusion Odyssey"nA dance based on Hans Rinderknecht's PhD, entitled:nn"Studies of non-hydrodynamic processes in Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions on OMEGA and the NIF"nnMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of PhysicsnThesis & Choreography by Hans RinderknechtnnPerformed live at MIT's Simmons Hall, April 18th 2014.nMany thanks to Quicksilver Dance and the residents of Simmons Hall for their participation in this work! Less
The “Discovery" of the Pacific: International Relationships within the Spanish Oceanic continent.nnDavid Manzano nResearcher of Spanish Na...
The “Discovery" of the Pacific: International Relationships within the Spanish Oceanic continent.nnDavid Manzano nResearcher of Spanish National Research Council (Escuela de Estudios Hispano- Americanos, Seville)nPhd Candidate of University Complutense of Madrid (Spain)email@example.comThe development of science and the technological advances are going to condition the extension of the great world powers after the advent of the Industrial Revolution. This great ocean will become the scenery of the fight looking for the supremacy between the world powers which begin a colonial race in order to increase their international strength. In this struggle, the development of the scientific expeditions is a key element to allow the `discovery´ of Oceania. Due to this fact, science becomes a relevant instrument for colonization.nThis PhD focuses on the international relationships that Spain establishes with other empires in the frontiers of its colonies in the so-called “Hispanic Oceania”, that is to say, Philippines, Marianas and the Caroline Islands.nnThis area is used by the Spanish overseas Empire as a source to increase its international prestige and to strengthen the “group matters” of the Spanish nation, exerting on the population an unreal image of international superiority. nnPeople assume this fact, as it shows the battle for the Caroline Islands in 1885, being the State encouraged by the Spanish to go to war. Finally, the break out of the Hispano-American war in 1898 will reveal the Spanish nation that unreal image, and consequently the Spanish defeat will condition the end of the Spanish empire within the Hispanic Oceanic continent. Less
Winner of the Biology category of Dance your PhD 2011 competition by Science journal. nnOur dance depicts the social and sexual behavior of ...
Winner of the Biology category of Dance your PhD 2011 competition by Science journal. nnOur dance depicts the social and sexual behavior of the common fruit fly and illustrates how male-male relatedness can reduce the intensity of male-male competition and affect female choice. Less
A dance with men in speedos portraying chicken sperm took the top prize in Science Magazine's annual 'Dance your Ph.D.' contest. Jen Markha...
A dance with men in speedos portraying chicken sperm took the top prize in Science Magazine's annual 'Dance your Ph.D.' contest. Jen Markham runs down all the top dances. Less
Meet the winner of this year's Dance Your Ph.D. competition! nnWhen she isn't out in the forest gathering data for her Ph.D. in plant biolog...
Meet the winner of this year's Dance Your Ph.D. competition! nnWhen she isn't out in the forest gathering data for her Ph.D. in plant biology at the University of Georgia at Athens, Uma Nagendra spends a good deal of her time hanging upside down from a trapeze doing circus aerials. To combine the two halves of her life, she teamed up with her fellow aerialists to create the mid-air dance based on her scientific research - and won this year's Dance Your Ph.D. competition! nnFind out more about Uma and the rest of the winners: nhttp://scim.ag/wdance14 Less
Shifts in dietary patterns towards a Western-style diet have been accompanied by increased susceptibility to many chronic diseases. It is hy...
Shifts in dietary patterns towards a Western-style diet have been accompanied by increased susceptibility to many chronic diseases. It is hypothesized that this may be in part due to changing epigenetic patterns. Epigenetics determines how tightly the DNA is coiled by adding chemical compounds directly to the DNA and the bead-like histone proteins which the DNA wraps around. The tightness of DNA coiling determines which genes are expressed which can affect health and disease. Epigenetic patterns can be modified by the environment, including diet.nnMy thesis focuses on the effect of consumption of a Western style diet on epigenetic patterns. The first scene depicts a typical lunch time with everyone consuming their favourite processed fast food, which is in contrast to the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans through MyPlate. The influence of peer pressure on dietary choices is demonstrated by the throwing out of MyPlate and passing of the fast food. nnThe second scene takes place inside the nucleus of the cell, with silver DNA wrapped around histone protein dancers. Balloons represent methyl marks which tighten the DNA structure. The pink umbrella represents an acetyl mark, which loosens the DNA structure. Dancing transcription factors can’t bind the tightened DNA at the balloons but they can successfully bind the loosened DNA structure at the umbrella, leading to expression of the green gene. Components of the Western style diet, including pizza, chips and lollipops, come pummeling through the cell and disrupt the epigenetic patterns by moving the balloons and umbrella to different genes. Finally, the transcription factors return to bind the new loosened gene with the umbrella, leading to expression of the red gene. Less
The PhD thesis underlying this dance video deals with the question of how to achieve effective water protection policies. nIn order to desig...
The PhD thesis underlying this dance video deals with the question of how to achieve effective water protection policies. nIn order to design innovative water policies, the concerted action by diverse parts of society, economy, and politics is necessary.nIn the video, several dancing styles (hip hop, house, salsa, acrobatics) stand for diverse political groups, which fight over the use and the protection of water resources.n nWater bodies are symbolized by a fish bowl. nThe environmentalist shown at the beginning of the video tries to protect the fish bowl (i.e. waters), while agriculture and industry aquire the fishbowl in order to use it as a sink for their effluents. nSocietal issues, such as the overuse of waters, can attract the attention of the political realm. nIn order to portray political agenda setting, the video shows a researcher, whose research results contribute to placing a societal issue on the political agenda. nAfter agenda setting, negotiations among different types of political groups start about how to solve an underlying issue. The video first presents a salsa dance, which symbolizes “the state”, ni.e. diverse governmental bodies that become active in the policymaking process. nFurthermore, the video shows a hip hop choreography representing agricultural groups, a house dance symbolizing industrial associations, and acrobatics embodying environmentalists. nWith these groups, I seek to illustrate that in policymaking processes diverse interests express their policy preferences and fight over political influence. nThe next scene in the video shows policy actors who form opposing coalitions and stand in conflict with each other. nIt also illustrates that veto players, such as parliaments, can block the entire policymaking process through their no-vote on a legal act. nThe video symbolizes veto players´ power through their action of turning out the music. nThe next scene shows brokers, who mediate in policymaking processes between opposing coalitions in order to find common ground and overcome conflicts. nIn the video, four people representing different interests look at each other and realize that they’re dancing the very same dance move, just in a slightly different style. nThe same dance move symbolizes the common ground that brokers typically seek to promote. nThe final choreography integrates dance moves from diverse styles (hip hop, house, salsa) in order to illustrate that through mutual exchange, policy designs have the potential to perform particularly well in solving an underlying policy issue such as improving water quality. nnThe dance video has a happy ending as the water in the fish bowl is finally clean again. Of course, reality is “slightly” more complex than the story in this dance video. nIf you’re interested in finding out about the whole story, there is a lot of valuable research to explore in policy studies, environmental governance, and policy network research. nn_nnMusic Credits (CC-Licenses):nn“Sound Opening” by Benedikt Wagnern“Weit oben” by Felix Friedrich, from Sound Cloudn“Opening par Songo 21” by SONGO 21, from Free Music Archiven“Ric Flair” by BenJamin Banger, from Free Music Archiven“Sugar Fairies” by Felix Friedrich, from Sound Cloudn„Hunger Pains“ by Audiobinger, from Free Music Archiven„Sueltate Prod By Dj Willie .R.F.C.L.W 2013“ by Kaiiny, from Sound Cloudn„Something Small“ by Minden, from Free Music Archiven“Dancing Like A Maniac” by Rey Izain, from Free Music Archive Less
I created this video for the competition "Dance Your PhD," sponsored by Science and TED. nnThe aim of the contest is to get scientists to cr...
I created this video for the competition "Dance Your PhD," sponsored by Science and TED. nnThe aim of the contest is to get scientists to creatively explain their PhD theses through dance. I have a second goal, which is to show what "math research" means (since many people think it means looking up formulas in books).nnIn the first minute of this video, the dancer (Libby) shows how two pentagons are glued together to make a surface. This is the key idea of the video -- the explaining of science, wordlessly, through dance. You will understand it, and you will remember it. This is my favorite part!nnOkay, now step back for a minute. Imagine that you are walking in a straight line on a bagel. Maybe you walk right through the hole, and return back to where you started. Maybe you walk around the outside (like an equator), and return back to where you started. Or maybe you walk in a spiraling path (still in a straight line), through the hole and around the bagel a few times before returning to where you started.nnIn the next part of the video, Libby dances across the pentagon in a straight line. This is exactly like your spiraling walk on the bagel: she dances in a straight line, and goes around the surface a few times (maybe 8, because there are 8 lines on the pentagons) before she returns to where she started and repeats the path.nnWhen Libby dances across the pentagons in straight lines, she dances across the colored edges of the pentagons. We care about which ones she crosses, so we keep track of it by having a Math Hatter with that color shirt get in line. This creates a sequence of colors (which repeats with period 8).nnMy thesis investigates what happens to this color sequence when we change the pentagon surface. We "shear, cut and reassemble the pentagons," which is clearly shown in the video. This changes the original 8 lines on the pentagons to a different pattern -- 4 lines, as it turns out. When Libby dances across these four lines, she's doing a different, shorter spiral around the bagel (if you will). She crosses four colored edges, which gives us a new sequence of Math Hatters. Thesis question: What is the relationship between the 8-color sequence and the 4-color sequence?nnAnswer: Each Math Hatter checks to see if s/he has the same color on both sides, and if so, stays in line (keeps her hat), and if not, sadly has to leave (removes his hat).nnThat's my theorem: Shearing and reassembling the pentagons is equivalent to seeing if the colors are the same on both sides. nnMost videos submitted to this contest use metaphor: "I study titanium bonding to bone, which is kind of like titanium and bone dancing together." I am fortunate that I can show you the actual objects (shapes and lines) that I study, and explain the actual result I proved in my thesis.nnThanks for watching, and for reading this explanation.nnHere is the FAQ about how I created this video: https://vimeo.com/47273811nnThis video has been shown at:n- the AMS Math Research Community at Snowbird, UTn- the Summer@ICERM REU, Brown Universityn- the Anja S. Greer Math Conference at Phillips Exeter AcademynnAlso seen on:n- Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/math/comments/vx3wt/cutting_sequences_on_the_double_p...n- PhD + epsilon: http://blogs.ams.org/phdplus/2012/08/31/performance-math/n- Brown Daily Herald: http://www.browndailyherald.com/grad-student-illustrates-math-thesis-through-dance-1.2774229#n- BDH article (essentially) reported In Russian: http://blog.campus-online.ru/?p=1800n- The Aperiodical: http://aperiodical.com/2012/07/dance-your-phd-cutting-sequences-on-the-double...n- Math Munch: http://mathmunch.wordpress.com/2012/07/09/faces-blackboards-and-dancing-phds/n- AMS Graduate Student Blog: http://mathgradblog.williams.edu/dance-math-phd/n- howthebodyworks: http://howthebodyworks.org/post/30128065018/dance-your-thesis-by-diana-davis-is-the-firstn- Williams math headlines: http://math.williams.edu/diana-davis-07-phd-dance-video/n- Brown math headlines: http://www.math.brown.edu/nnIf you have read this far and you want to read the actual paper for which this video serves as a sort of abstract, here it is: http://www.math.brown.edu/~diana/math/VeechPolygons.pdfnYou can write to me at diana(at)math.brown.edu. Less
Travis Wall of SYTYCD guest judges the final four contestants who are struggling to keep up with learning two routines. Catch Dance Your A*...
Travis Wall of SYTYCD guest judges the final four contestants who are struggling to keep up with learning two routines. Catch Dance Your A** Off at 10/9C on Oxygen. Less
Within Temptation - Concert Opening + The Last Dance 7-3-2012 Vredenburg UtrechtnSanctuary Tour
Mozee dance comp FCN 2012 furry connection north
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